|Anapa sand beaches have always been rated the best place to rest on the Black Sea coast of Russia. These beaches are a sand bar. A narrow band of influx land made of sand or pebbles which separates a coastal lake from the main basin is normally called bar . Anapa bar stretches from Anapsky cape to Zhelezny Rog cape (fig. 1) . It separates the system of coastal lakes (limans) and lakes (Solenoye lake, Vityazevsky liman, Chemburskoe lake, Anapa flooded areas, etc.) from the Black Sea. According to field measurements, aerial and space imageries regression of the coast is observed practically along the whole length of the bar. Considering exceptional recreational value of Anapa beaches the task of their time history research has not only theoretical but practical importance as well (fig. 2) . The works for time history research of Anapa bar coast line by the results of remote sensing used to be performed earlier. For example, Izmailov A.  used aerial photographs dated 1948, 1992 and 200 in his research. According to his data the width of the sea beach south of Vityazevo village was 158 m in 1948, 151 m in 1992 and 137 m in 2000. The reduction of beach width over the whole period was 70 meters. North of Anapa averaged width of the sea beach was 184 m in 1948, 108 m in 1992, 98 m in 2000. Sea beach width reduced by 87 m over the period from 1948 to 2000.|
According to Izmailov’s research  Anapa beaches reduced by 70-80 meters on the average within 52 years. The beaches continue to degrade. That is why the task of their time history research continues to be important.
Lately there appeared a possibility to apply open data of remote sensing. New materials gave us a possibility to reconstruct the time history of the coast line over the period 1941-2011.
Ten kilometer stretch of sand beaches from Anapa city to Vityazevo (fig. 1) village was selected as the subject of research.
Materials and methods
In order to investigate the time history of the coast line in the past, data about current state of Anapa bar coast line were required. GPS track of the coast line sample stretch was received on August 3, 2011, during a field trip. In order to reference archive remote sensing data present day satellite mosaic of 1 meter resolution was required. ScanEx RDC generously provided for non-commercial use a highly detailed imagery of the area under research, acquired from GeoEye-1 satellite on August 3, 2011.
Images of the 60-s related to CORONA programme (fig 3) were requested from US Geological Service . Out of images requested for the research only one image DS1036-2187DA112 acquired on August 12, 2011, turned out to be applicable for the purpose. After referencing of the above mentioned image to real geographic objects we received the 1966 configuration of the coast line. Starting from Vityazevo village at 1 kilometer interval profiles were laid, which helped to measure changes of the coast line over 45 years (Table 1).
Selection of aerial images of Anapa (fig. 4) made by Luftwaffe was found on http://www.pobeda-info.ru/  site. There were some complications with referencing objects since Anapa bar was not developed at that time and the image was mainly referenced to the parallel road (future Pionersky prospect). Out of all three available images the one acquired on October 24, 1941, could be referenced most accurately due to its big coverage and, therefore, greater number of objects for referencing (Table 1).
Research materials were gathered in GIS “Time history of Anapa bar coast line over the last 70 years” and published with the application of Scanex WEB GeoMixer technology on http://maps.kosmosnimki.ru/api/index.html?YD9DX.
Results and discussions
Acquired data allowed identification of Anapa bar coast line changes over the last 70 years at the stretch from Vityazevo village to Anapa city. To the north of Anapa (profiles 8-10, Tables 1 and 2) the coast line regression was 5-10 meters in 1941-1966 and 20-30 m in 1966-2011.
In 1941-2011 the coast line regression was 20-40 m on the average. It is possible that accelerated regression of the coast line is linked to the beginning of active agricultural exploration of Anapa bar which started in the 60-s of the XX century.
Data received by Izmailov A.  show the coast line recession by 70 m on the average. This indicator is two times more than the results received by us.
One of the reasons of results discrepancy is in application of different procedure for referencing of the coast line. For example, Izmailov A.  evaluates Anapa bar coast line changes by the relative width of the beach. It is possible that the changes of dune movement were not considered, at that. Besides, the northern part of Anapa city was being intensively developed and the beach width could reduce not only from the sea but also from the shore due to construction of embankment, recreation facilities. In our opinion referencing of archive images to geographic coordinates is more valid. The results of this work are achieved by referencing to geographic coordinates.
When analyzing 1941 images it was noted that the mouth of the Anapka River was 500 m to the south of its current mouth. On the 1966 image the old mouth turned into a liman and the Anapka River mouth received its current outline.
At the second key section to the south of Vityazevo village (profiles 1-2, Table 1) the average regression of the coast line over 45 years is 50-70 meters. Unfortunately, we couldn’t find aerial images of the 40-s related to this section. In general received results coincide with the data by Izmailov A .
In the direction from Vityazevo village to Anapa city beach there is a tendency to reduction of the coast line regression rate from 70 m to 20-30 m close the Anapka River mouth. This is related to specific features of hydro tectonic mode formation [2, 3]. Part of the city beach (Anapka River mouth) is covered by Vysoky Bereg cape against the impact of most active south-western and western storms. That is why here the sediment influx along the coast has the main direction from north-west to south-east. It sustains beaches but does not provide positive balance of beach formation material.
In conclusion we would like to note that Anapa bar beaches degradation will continue. Existing natural sources of beach formation materials (sediment influx along the coast, reproduction of shelly ground, wind deflation, etc.) are not sufficient for keeping beaches in a stable state. It is necessary to take urgent measures for their restoration and stabilization.
Research has been performed with the support of the Russian Fund of Fundamental research (grant № 11-05-90704-моб_ст.).
Authors thank ScanEx RDC for provided imagery from GeoEye-1 satellite of the subject under research, dated July 17, 2011. Also authors would like to thank Mr. Kosyan R. D., Doctor of Science (Geography) for valuable advice and comments.
Table 1. Time history of the coast line in 1966-2011according to Corona image acquired on August 12, 1966, and GPS track dated August 3, 2011.
|Profile number||Coordinates||Coast line changes, 1966-2011|
|1||44°58’27” N, 37°15’40” E||Coast regression by 73 m|
|2||44°58’04” N, 37°16’13” E||Coast regression by 53 m|
|3||44°57’40” N, 37°16’44” E||Coast regression by 34 m|
|4||44°57’16” N, 37°17’15” E||Coast regression by 42 m|
|5||44°56’49” N, 37°17’42” E||Coast regression by 37 m|
|6||44°56’22” N, 37°18’08” E||Coast regression by 23 m|
|7||44°55’54” N, 37°18’32” E||Coast regression by 22 m|
|8||44°55’25” N, 37°18’52” E||Coast regression by 21 m|
|9||44°54’54” N, 37°19’04” E||Coast regression by 31 m|
|10||44°54’21” N, 37°19’05” E||Coast regression by 23 m|
Table 2. Time history of the coast line in 1941-2011according to Luftwaffe aerial image dated October 24, 1941, and GPS track dated August 3, 2011.
|Profile number||Coordinates||Coast line changes, 1966-2011|
|8||44°55’25” N, 37°18’52” E||Coast regression by 22 m|
|9||44°54’54” N, 37°19’04” E||Coast regression by 38 m|
|10||44°54’21” N, 37°19’05” E||Coast regression by 30 m|
- 1.Izmailov Ya.A. Evolutsionnaya geographia poberezhya Azovskogo I Chernogo morei. Kniga 1. Anapskaya peresyp’. Sochi. 2005. 174 s.
- 2. Kosyan R., Kuklev S., Divinskiy B., Kosyan A., Krylenko M., Krylenko V. Evolutsiya berega Anapskoi peresypi Chernogo moray.// Trudy mezhdunarodnoy conferentsii “Sozdanaie I ispolzovanie iskusstvennykh zemelnykh uchastkov na beregakh I avkatorii vodoemov”., Novosibirsk, 2011, str. 208-213.
- 3. Kosyan R., Kuklev S., Divinskiy B., Kosyan A., Krylenko M., Krylenko V. The forecast of Anapa bay-bar coast evolution and sandy body thickness change. // Proc. of the Int. Conference on Coastal Engineering Practice. ASCE, USA, 2011, pp. 42-55.
- 4. Leontyev O.K., Rychagov G.I., Obschaya geomorfologiya (uchebnik dlya georg. spets.vuzov)/ – 2-e izdanie, pererab i dop. – M., Vyssh. Schk. 1988.— 318 с.
- 5. Luftwaffe Аerophotoimagery of Anapa town dated 24.10.1941 Approximate scale 1:43000. German aerials held in the National Archives (Series: Captured War Documents). DT/TM5 – Nr. 185 (http://pobeda-vov.ru/Lib/pages/item.aspx?itemid=2053)
- 6. CORONA DS1036-2187DA112 program imagery for August 12, 1966 (http://edcsns17.cr.usgs.gov/NewEarthExplorer/)
- Fig. 1. Diagram of the area under research. Kosmosnimki.Ru base material
- Fig. 2. Anapa beaches washaway. Photo by Lavrentiev N.
- Fig. 3. Fragment of the CORONA space image of Anapa, August 12, 1966. Provided by USGS
- Fig. 4. Fragment of the Luftwaffe aerial image of Anapa, October 24, 1941; http://pobeda-vov.ru
- Fig. 5. GIS “Time history of Anapa bar coast line over the last 70 years”, http://maps.kosmosnimki.ru/api/index.html?YD9DX.
Authors: Lavrentiev N.1, Kuklev S.2
- 1 Officer of ScanEx RDC geoinformation and web technologies department, junior researcher of Evolutional Geography Laboratory of Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
- 2 Candidate of Science (Geography), Head of Hydro physics department of the Southern division of the Federal State Budget Institution of Science at Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Ghelendjik, Krasnodarsky region), e-mail: email@example.com
Key words: time history, coast line, Anapa bar, remote sensing data.