Since the 1990s, cooperation between Europe and Russia in space has steadily expanded and became institutionalised. While successful projects were undertaken in areas like human spaceflight, launchers, space science or exploration, cooperation in the field of Earth observation (EO) has remained rather limited. Russia, however, has set forth an ambitious plan to develop further its EO capabilities in the coming years. This effort is emblematic of Moscow’s broader desire to revitalise its role as a leading space power. It could likewise offer an opportunity to inspire expanded cooperation between Europe and Russia. This ESPI Perspective seeks to provide a summary of Russia’s space policies, institutions and industry as a lead-in to exploring candidate areas for expanded cooperation between Europe and Russia in the civilian EO field.