I am very pleased to let you know that we have just published two reports; both of which are available on our web-site. The first is our latest survey of the EO services industry and the second is the first of some case studies we are doing which bring a new approach to assessing the value created by the use of EO data.
The 2015 industry survey takes a comprehensive look at the state of the EO services industry in Europe and Canada.
The results are very detailed and provide a very effective basis on which we can monitor the sector for trends and consequently develop our messages to policy makers concerning their decisions which impact on the industry. It is based on 2014 figures and follows the first one which we made 2 years ago (2013 survey based on 2012 figures).

Keep reading...

Interview with 2015 EARSC Company Award winner, Peter Volk, Chief Executive Officer and Director of GAF AG

30 years of GAF: A long and successful history – the solid basis for an inspiring future
Customer orientation and excellence have been the driving forces behind the companys’ development towards a major European player in the Earth Observation field. The broad service portfolio has helped to establish a constant growth and made the company to perform excellently compared to many competitors – and also within the Telespazio Grouping. An outstanding positioning has been achieved in the Copernicus land service suite, in the demanding military and security markets, and the natural resource management consultancy field. It’s the volume of good ingredients and clients’ appreciation, that makes GAF bound for the future.

Industry Profile

GAF AG: a one-stop shop for geoinformation

We deliver our products and services in a large number of consulting domains.
We are focused on quality, technical excellence and customer satisfaction.

EARSC Activities

A Taxonomy for the EO Services Market

Enhancing the perception and performance of the EO service industry

EARSC EO Industry Survey 2015

We are very pleased to be able to send to you the results coming from the survey we conducted into the state and health of the European EO services industry.

EARSC Survey on Public Sector Institutions with activities in EO and geo-information

Copernicus is a European programme devoted to delivering geo­information for public policy makers throughout the EU. It has a second goal which is to help develop the downstream industry. EARSC (European Association of Remote Sensing Companies) is collecting evidence on the benefits of Copernicus for the 2017 mid­term review through this survey and another which addresses the private sector.

EARSC, European Product Award

The EARSC competition “European EO product of the year” will encourage the use of open data from GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems)

Geoff Sawyer Interview for Mercator Ocean

Geoff Sawyer, Secretary General of EARSC was a guest of honor at the Copernicus Marine Service User Workshop that took place in Brussels last September 8th 2015.

OGEOzine n.9 (magazine for the oil and gas industry using EO)

The 9 edition of Ogeozine has been launched. It brings two interesting success stories on
Surface Deformation MOnitoring with InSAR: In Salah CO2 Storage and Soft ground mapping: Western UAE

What is the economic value of satellite Imagery?

The first case report on Copernicus Sentinels’ Products Economic Value: A Case Study of Winter Navigation in the Baltic has just been published at the EARSC website case report – winter navigation in the baltic

Member News

ÅAC Microtec and Spacemetric partner on smart downlinking of Earth observation data

Spacemetric and ÅAC Microtec have announced today their partnership on innovative technologies for smart downlinking of satellite Earth observation data. The new Bluestone technology will optimise the downlink of imagery from satellites to ground stations addressing the problem of handling the ever increasing volumes of data generated in space.

Astrosat wins ESA contract and is developing a RAPID disaster recovery tool for developing nations

Scottish space science and management company, Astrosat, has won a European Space Agency (ESA) contract to develop its ThermCERT application, a thermal and carbon efficiency reporting tool which uses space-derived data to enhance situational awareness and potentially reduce the cost of surveying to local authorities.

CS key contributor to the success of the Sentinel-2 mission as part of the Copernicus program

CS, a leading actor in the field of space ground systems in Europe, is actively contributing to the success of the Sentinel-2 mission, which first images have just been acquired and processed. In addition to the satellite Launch and Early Orbit Period support to the control centre in Darmstadt (ESOC), CS provides the European Space Agency with its expertise and solutions in the field of image processing.

Daily satellite tracking of harmful algae blooms for the Great Lakes now online!

Harmful algae blooms threaten drinking water, aquaculture industries and the public welfare. A significant bloom was recently forecasted for Lake Erie: NOAA predicts that this year’s blooms will be “among the most severe in recent years” and will peak in September.

DigitalGlobe’s Global Enhanced GEOINT Delivery program renewed

(24 September 2015) DigitalGlobe today announced that the U.S. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) has executed the next year of the Global Enhanced GEOINT Delivery (Global EGD) program under the NGA EnhancedView contract starting Sept. 1, 2015.

DMC constellation demonstrates 1-metre capability

(16 September 2015) The first 1-metre high resolution optical satellite imagery from the DMC3/TripleSat Constellation satellites has been released today.

ELECNOR Deimos new contracts for EO Ground Segment and Applications

In the Earth Observation market, Elecnor Deimos is particularly active in ground segment systems and EO applications, as well as continuing with a wide range of activities across the Space sector including the ability to develop and market end-to end earth observation missions, as in Deimos-1 and Deimos-2 missions.

EUROSENSE will be present at the Flemish Space Days on 20-22/11/2015 at Leuven, Belgium

From Friday the 20th of November 2015 till Sunday the 22nd of November 2015, the Flemish Space Days will be held in the Brabanthal at Leuven, Belgium. During this event, the Flemish Space Industry present their products and services during a large exhibition which is open to everyone.

Fugro Intergates and Rebrands UK Based Geotechnical Specialists

Fugro’s UK geotech companies are restructured as Fugro GeoServices Ltd. The renaming completes the integration of Fugro Seacore, Fugro Engineering Services, EM Drilling, Fugro Loadtest, Fugro Instrumentation & Monitoring and Fugro Aperio.

Interregional Cooperation in Space: 2nd Joint workshop Apulian and Attica Clusters.

Bari, Italy, September 22-23, 2015. Interregional cooperation is fundamental for a harmonised development of industrial capacity and systematic use of space in European Regions.

New Copernicus contract for Kongsberg Satellite Services

Kongsberg Satellite Services (KSAT) has signed an expanded satellite support contract with a total value of 205 MNOK (21,8 MEUR) with the European Space Agency for the Sentinel satellites in the Copernicus program.

New Managing Director for Euroconsult USA

(8 October 2015) Euroconsult today announced the hiring of Sima Fishman as Managing Director of Euroconsult USA.

Pixalytics publishes its first book ‘Practical Handbook of Remote Sensing’ providing a beginners guide to the world of satellite data

Written by Dr Samantha Lavender and Andrew Lavender, the Practical Handbook of Remote Sensing will be published in November 2015 by CRC Press of the Taylor & Francis Group.

Spacemetric and ÅAC Microtec partner on smart downlinking of Earth observation data

(17 September 2015) Spacemetric and ÅAC Microtec have announced today their partnership on innovative technologies for smart downlinking of satellite Earth observation data.

Spacetec Newsletter

…features from MEOS, Sentinel-1A CollGS…etc

Special Research Package Satellite-Based Earth Observation

Euroconsult: Market Prospects to 2024 & Thematic Executive Report

Stevenson Astrosat’s commercialisation of space sector

Copernicus Masters prize boosts Stevenson Astrosat’s commercialisation of space sector

Summit on Earth Observation Business

EUROCONSULT: The 7th Summit on Earth Observation Business concluded in Paris after two days of hectic activities on Friday. The event, a unique opportunity for top-level executives and senior government officials of the earth observation & geoinformation communities to gather, present and share ideas, was part of Euroconsult’s World Satellite Business Week.

Trimble Transforms Satellite Data into Intelligence with its New Remote Sensing Suite

Trimble (NASDAQ: TRMB) announced today a new software solution, the Trimble® Remote Sensing Suite. The new software suite enables geospatial professionals to efficiently extract high-quality information from satellite imagery for environmental, urban planning, agriculture, oil and gas, mining and engineering applications. The Remote Sensing Suite is a powerful combination of Inpho® SATMaster module for satellite imagery processing and eCognition® software for object-based feature extraction.

UAVs for alien plant species detection and monitoring

GISAT contributes to the development and establishing of new innovative methodology for early detection and monitoring of selected invasive plant species using UAV remote sensing methods.

UrtheCast Corp. acquires Deimos Imaging

UrtheCast Corp. acquired in July Deimos Imaging and its Earth Observation business from Elecnor. In addition to ownership and operation of the Deimos-1 and Deimos-2 satellites, UrtheCast has acquired satellite operations related to the collection, storage, processing, analysis, distribution, and licensing of imagery captured by these and other satellites. The combination of UrtheCast and Deimos Imaging operations is expected to significantly accelerate UrtheCast’s strategies related to distribution, web platform development, and the building out of the UrtheCast Constellation.

Welcome to PanGeo Alliance sixth member!

The PanGeo Alliance is the first global alliance of Earth Observation satellite operators. The Alliance has grown in its first year from four to six members, demostrating the increasing interest of international satellite operators to join forces for creating a unified, virtual satellite constellation. The PanGeo Alliance provides access to imagery and tasking opportunities from a unique and growing fleet of Earth Observation satellites. Its fleet currently provides multispectral imagery in a wide range of resolutions (from 22 m to 75 cm per pixel), and a daily global imaging capability.

Young leading Indian politicians at KSAT

Monday 5 th october we had the pleasure of hosting two leading young Indian politicians at our headquarter in Tromsø.

Earth Observation News

A World of Open Data

Nowadays, people are asking eagerly for Open Data and Open Government in order to gain access to unmediated facts and knowledge. Open data is, in fact, not a new idea. It is a way to share raw data with the public and put no limitations on its application. Open Government is a similar concept, encouraging the wide dissemination of government information. Integrating different kinds of Open Data often generates greater value.

Access Free Cosmo-Skymed Data for Research

The Satellite Applications Catapult is leading the COSMO-SkyMed Radar Science and Innovation Research (CORSAIR) programme which will provide free access to the COSMOSkyMed data for Research and Development (R&D).

Annual flood damages up to 100 billion EUR by 2080

According to a JRC study published on 24 September, projections under a “high-end“ climate scenario show that river floods in Europe could directly affect more than half a million people a year by 2050 and nearly one million by 2080, as compared to about 200 thousand today. Related annual damages could climb from the current 5.3 billion EUR to up to 40 billion EUR in 2050 and reach 100 billion EUR by 2080, due to the combined effect of climatic change and socio-economic growth.

Big shake next for air polution satellite

(25 September 2015) The launch of Sentinel-5 Precursor is planned for next spring so the satellite is being put through its paces to make sure it is fit for liftoff and life in orbit tracking air pollution. Vibration and acoustic tests are next up.

China launches hi-res Gaofen-9 Earth observation satellite

China on Monday quietly launched the Gaofen-9 high-resolution Earth observation satellite on a Long March 2D rocket from the Jiuquan satellite launch centre in the Gobi desert.

Chris Steenmans (EEA): "One of the important elements is that Copernicus data are available, free and open for everybody"

Interview with Chris Steenmans, Head of the Programme ICT and data management at the European Environment Agency.

Defining the Geospatial Industry

The first known use of the term “Geographic Information System” can be traced back to Dr. Roger Tomlinson’s research paper “A Geographic Information System for Regional Planning” in 1968. Since then GIS has evolved from being a niche scientific tool to a mass-market technology. T

Divergent trajectories of Antarctic surface melt under two twenty-first-century climate scenarios

Ice shelves modulate Antarctic contributions to sea-level rise1 and thereby represent a critical, climate-sensitive interface between the Antarctic ice sheet and the global ocean.

Earth-i announces forthcoming operational data services from the DMC3/TripleSat Constellation

First images pave the way for commencement of operational data services by Earth-i providing dependable, very high resolution, daily global imaging opportunities.

Geospatial World Forum

Geospatial World Forum 2016 offers opportunities to conduct workshops as part of the conference programme.

Global geo initiatives in agriculture and food security

Since the launch of the Earth Resources Technology Satellite in 1972 (later renamed Landsat), which ushered in the modern era of global land observations and monitoring, remote sensing has been an integral part of agriculture and food security programs of governments and agencies around the world. Since then there has been a fast progress in application of remotely sensed data to the mapping and measurement of the Earth’s characteristics. The last 35 years have seen amazing improvements in sensor technologies, incredible advances in computing, and impressive innovations in analytical procedures.

Global Water Bodies product released

Copernicus Land Monitoring Service releases a new product: We’re pleased to announce a new product in our portfolio, a global Water Bodies detection product (known as Version 2). The product is provided in Near Real Time and is a backprocessed since January 2014 onwards, so nearly 2 years of data are available.

Have your say: Earth Observation instrumentation Development 2016-2030

The document discuss the future direction of Earth Observation instrumentation in the UK with a wide community.

Indra renews the SMOS satellite maintenance and development contract of the user segment

(17 September 2015) The European Space Agency has extended until 2017 the maintenance and development contract of the SMOS (Soil Moisture & Ocean Salinity) mission user segment, entrusted to Indra.

LAPAN-A2 FM and APRS satellite launched

The Indonesian amateur radio society ORARI report that on Monday, 28 September 2015 04:30 hours UT, the LAPAN-A2/ORARI satellite was launched from the Sriharikota Range (SHAR) of the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in India. Deployment took place 23 minutes later.

Luciad introduces 3D visualization to the Internet of Things

Luciad software introduces stunning 3-D visualization to the web, allowing everyone to interact with today’s increasingly massive data sets.

MDA expands imaging modes for Radarsat-2 for ocean applications

(30 September 2015) MDA’s Information Systems group has released two new Radarsat-2 imaging modes for commercial use.

NASA Eyes on Earth Aid Response to Carolina Flooding

It was rain that wouldn’t quit. A weather system fueled by warm moisture streaming in from the Atlantic Ocean on Oct. 3 and 4 relentlessly dumped between 1 and 2 feet (0.3 and 0.6 meters) of rain across most of South Carolina. The result was rivers topping their banks and dams bursting. Catastrophic flooding followed across most of the state, which has left residents in some areas without power or clean drinking water.

NASA/USDA SERVIR - A Partnership Connecting Space to Village

NASA Administrator Bolden: NASA is deeply committed to Earth science and the value it provides people around the globe. We have been since our founding.

National Mapping Agencies

The inexorable rush of technology affects all organisations. National Mapping Agencies (NMAs), having celebrated their existence of 100 years or more, at times feel overwhelmed by this rush. Time and tide and, I may add technology, wait for no one. It is a situation of absorb or perish. As the demand and need for geospatial content went up manifold, NMAs had to quickly change strategies to stay relevant in the game.

New User Guide for Copernicus Emergency Management Service

To coincide with the release of the second phase of the Copernicus Emergency Management Service (EMS), the European Commission’s DG GROW has commissioned an update to the EMS User Guide to reflect changes to service and product specifications, as well as the transition from GMES to Copernicus. This activity involved a study of user requirements and incorporated recommendations from the European Commission services DG GROW, DG ECHO, DG JRC and Member States.

New Venture Focuses on Image Processing Services and Consulting to The UAS Industry

TORONTO, Ontario (August 30th, 2015) – A group of geospatial veterans have identified the need to address the global commercial UAS/drone mapping market and have formed The GPS Group to meet the needs of this rapidly expanding segment within the geospatial and mapping industry.

Novel remote sensing technology to map flowering plants

Scientists have created a flowering map for a semi-arid savannah site in Africa using a new remote sensing technology.

Per aspera ad astra: Supporting the uptake of geospatial solutions through effective communication and exploitation

Dimitri Papadakis and Lefteris Mamais are two entrepreneurs who launched their start-up consulting firm Evenflow in January of this year, with an eye on turning the promise of space technology into benefits of decision-makers, businesses and the wider public. The co-founders discuss the opportunities that new, free and open data and services, such as those provided by the EU flagship programmes Copernicus and Galileo, offer to the geospatial industry, and the challenges linked to their exploitation.

PlanetObserver continues production of PlanetSAT 15 L8 imagery base map

(30 September 2015) The French company PlanetObserver, specialized in imagery base map production for more than 25 years, announced today the coverage of more than 50 Mill. sq km with PlanetSAT 15 L8 base map.

Precision agriculture market set to cross $5.5 billion

US: The global precision agriculture market is projected to cross $ 5.5 billion in total market value by 2020 after registering a Compound Annual Growth Rate of 12.64% over the period 2014 to 2020.

Review: Forum of the Monitoring for Environment and Security in Africa (MESA)

Monitoring for Environment and Security in Africa (MESA) from 31st August – 4th September 2015 in Kenya, participants discussed the use of Earth Observation data for policy, planning and decision making processes in Africa, provided by the MESA project.

Rezatec uses Earth Observation to measure peatland integrity and restoration prioritization for Northern Ireland Water

Harwell, Oxfordshire, 3rd September 2015 – Rezatec, the innovative landscape intelligence company, has been working with Northern Ireland Water to undertake an innovative study of its Dungonnell catchment, on the Garron Plateau, to the North of Belfast, using its cutting edge Earth Observation (EO) techniques. The aim of the project is to look at the integrity of peatland in the catchment area and its risk to water quality, as well as to provide a prioritisation assessment for restoration activities.

Satellite Based-EO: Market prospects to 2024

Satellite-Based Earth Observation: Market prospects to 2024 is the only report providing industry forecasts, assessment of business opportunities and analysis of the entire value chain for this growing segment of the satellite industry.

Satellite Data Helps Migrating Birds Survive

This fall, birds migrating south from the Arctic will find 7,000 acres of new, temporary wetland habitat for their stopovers in California. The wetlands – rice fields shallowly flooded for a couple weeks after the harvest – are courtesy of a project that combines citizen science, conservation groups and imagery from Landsat satellites, a joint NASA and U.S.

Satellite Masters Conference and Awards Ceremony

Explore cutting-edge space applications from 20 – 22 October 2015 in Berlin

Sentinel-2 catches eye of algal storm

The Sentinel-2A satellite has been in orbit for only a matter of weeks, but new images of an algal bloom in the Baltic Sea show that it is already exceeding expectations. Built essentially as a land monitoring mission, Sentinel-2 will also certainly find its way into marine applications.

Significant supply expansion for EO industry

(16 September 2015) According to the 8th edition of Euroconsult’s newly published report, Satellite-Based Earth Observation: Market Prospects to 2024, over 400 civil and commercial Earth observation (EO) satellites (>50kg) are expected to be launched over the next decade compared to 179 over 2005-2014.

SMOS meets ocean monsters

(30 September 2015) ESA’s SMOS and two other satellites are together providing insight into how surface winds evolve under tropical storm clouds in the Pacific Ocean.

Surrey Satellites show 1m res imagery

The first 1m high resolution optical satellite imagery from the DMC3/TripleSat Constellation satellites is demonstrated today by Surrey Satellites Technology (SSTL) following the launch of three Earth Observation mini-satellites on an Indian PSLV in July.

Teledyne Dalsa and Denel Spaceteq to develop Earth observation satellite

(07 Oct 2015) Custom multispectral sensors scheduled for manufacture by 2017; benefits for agriculture.

TerraGo Publisher Enables Cloud-based GIS Portals for the Enterprise

TerraGo, a pioneer of geospatial collaboration and mobility software, announced today the availability of TerraGo Publisher® for ArcGIS® Server version 6.8. The release provides powerful new features that help companies create map portals and web services that extend the power of ArcGIS to all enterprise users.

The Copernicus Masters winners will be announced on 20-22 October in Berlin

The Satellite Masters Conference, which will take place from 20-22 October 2015 in Berlin, will host the Award Ceremony of Europe’s major innovation competitions for space applications – the Copernicus Masters together with the European Satellite Navigation Competition.

The GeoInformation Group Supports St Helena’s Multi-Million Pound Economic Development

The UKMap team within The GeoInformation Group has been commissioned by St Helena Government to create a cartographic database for the island’s new 1:25,000 and 1:10,000 scale mapping.

UAE Space Agency strengthens the use of space assets at the Eye on Earth Summit 2015

Dr. Mohammed Al Ahbabi, Director General of the United Arab Emirates Space Agency (UAE) reinforced the agency’s commitment to strengthen international collaboration through space agency cooperation for the use of space assets in environmental research.

UNOSAT Campaigns for Disaster Risk Reduction

Making a Difference Locally, Where People Live

UrtheCast Awarded Prize for 'Strategic Transaction of the Year' by Euroconsult During the 2015 Summit on Earth Observation Business

VANCOUVER, Sept. 18, 2015 /PRNewswire/ – UrtheCast Corp. (TSX:UR) (“UrtheCast” or the “Company”) is pleased to announce that it has been awarded the Euroconsult prize for ‘Strategic Transaction of the Year’.

Weather Analytics to be PlanetiQ Customer, Invests in OmniEarth

[Via Satellite 10-12-2015] Weather Analytics, a commercial weather data company, has invested in remote sensing startup OmniEarth, and also intends to become a customer of PlanetiQ when its constellation is active. Bill Pardue, chairman and CEO of Weather Analytics, said Oct. 8 that the company is confident in the ideas presented and is eager to see small satellites providing space-based weather data.

What is sustainable development?

The United Nations defines sustainable development as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”.


Big Shake for air pollution satellite

25 September 2015. The launch of Sentinel-5 Precursor is planned for next spring so the satellite is being put through its paces to make sure it is fit for liftoff and life in orbit tracking air pollution. Vibration and acoustic tests are next up.

China Launches High-resolution Commercial Imaging Satellite

by Peter B. de Selding — October 7, 2015.

China launches Jilin-1 mission via Long March 2D

China launched four satellites to provide photographs to commercial clients while helping with harvest assessment, geological disaster prevention and resource surveys. The launch of the Jilin-1 mission took place at 04:13 UTC on Wednesday, using a Long March-2D launch vehicle from the 603 Launch Pad at the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center’s LC43.

Copernicus brochures available for download

The European Commission recently published a brochure presenting the Copernicus programme and the many ways it benefits to its users in a wide variety of application domains.

ESA, Eumetsat Finalize Contract for Next-gen Weather Satellites

by Peter B. de Selding — October 6, 2015. PARIS — Europe’s meteorological satellite organization, Eumetsat, on Oct. 5 contracted with the European Space Agency to build Europe’s next-generation polar-orbiting weather satellites intended to operate between 2021 and around 2042.

Geospatial industry should respond to the needs of maritime users

Geospatial technology is essential to the operation of Portuguese Hydrographic Institute. Its Director General shares his views on marine technology evolution, current trends and how the Institute is keeping up. – See more at: http://geospatialworld.net/Interview/ViewInterview.aspx?id=31527#sthash.Bs6e86BQ.dpuf

Horizon 2020 work programme for 2016-2017 published

The European Commission will invest almost €16 billion in research and innovation in the next two years under Horizon 2020, the EU’s research and innovation funding scheme, following a new work programme for 2016-17 adopted on 13 October. The work programme is now available on the participant portal.

ISRO’s NISAR EO satellite to be launched in 2021

NASA and ISRO joining hands to build an earth observation satellite called NISAR (NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Mission).

Japan to provide grant of $3 mln to help create national infrastructure for geospatial data of Ukraine

Japan International Cooperation Agency (J ICA) will provide $3 million to realize a pilot project as part of the creation of the national infrastructure for geospatial data in Ukraine, Deputy Head of Diplomatic Mission and Advisor to Embassy of Japan to Ukraine Hiromi Nakano has said.

Monitoring & understanding climate change

Teddington, UK — The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has published an extensive report ‘Metrology for Climate – Metrology priorities for the earth observation and climate community‘ containing the recommendations from international research organisations on the role of metrology in supporting climate research.

Panel Endorses Vegetation Fluorescence Mapper for ESA’s Earth Explorer Program

by Peter B. de Selding — September 25, 2015. PARIS — A European Earth observation advisory committee has selected a mission to map global vegetation fluorescence to measure plant-stored carbon ahead of a carbon- and methane-monitoring satellite as Europe’s next Earth Explorer mission.

Sustainable development goals: Monitor ecosystem services from space

(3 September 2015) by Anna F. Cord, Ralf Seppelt & Woody Turner

The Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring service becomes fully operational!

The Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring service has been fully operational since May 2015, following the signature of the Delegation Agreement between the European Commission and Mercator Océan in November 2014. Entrusted by this agreement with the responsibility for the operation of the service, Mercator Océan has coordinated the transition of the service from a pilot phase to an operational one.

The OGC requests comment on the OGC® OpenSearch Extension for Earth Observation Standard

7 October 2015 – The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC®) is seeking comments on the OGC OpenSearch Extension for Earth Observation, a candidate OGC standard. This OpenSearch extension provides a simple way to make queries to a repository that contains Earth Observation information and enables syndication of repositories for this purpose. Once approved as a standard and implemented in software products and services, this Standard will make it much easier for users to navigate diverse and expanding collections of Earth observation data.